The burden of thyroid disease in the general population is enormous.Thyroid tumors are the most common endocrine neoplasms Thyroid disorders are the most common among all the endocrine diseases in India. Recent studies showed 50% of people in the community have microscopic nodules, 3.5% have occult papillary carcinoma, 15% have palpable goitres, 10% demonstrate an abnormal thyroid-stimulating hormone level, and 5% of women have overt hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism.
In areas of iodine sufficiency, papillary carcinomas are the predominant variety. Different studies from India show a predominance of papillary malignancy followed by follicular malignancies.
Thyroid malignancies are divided into papillary carcinomas (80%), follicular carcinomas (10%), medullary thyroid carcinomas (5-10%), anaplastic carcinomas (1-2%), primary thyroid lymphomas (rare), and primary thyroid sarcomas
In Thyroid cancer most commonly patient feel a painless, palpable, solitary thyroid nodule. Following symptoms can also be seen.
Solitary nodules: Most likely to be malignant in patients older than 60 years and in patients younger than 30 years.
- Nodular growth.
- Rapid growth: Ominous sign.
- Usually painless (nontender to palpation).
- Hard and fixed nodules.
Thyroid cancer can occur at any age, but the risk peaks earlier for women (who are most often in their 40s or 50s when diagnosed) than for men (who are usually in their 60s or 70s).
Follicular Thyroid cancers are more common in areas of the world where peopleâ€™s diets are low in iodine.
- Exposure to radiation therapy.
- Family history of thyroid cancer.
To determine whether your Thyroid tumor is benign or cancerous, you have been advised by your doctor to do some interventions as follows
FNAB- This is important diagnostic tool in evaluating whether Thyroid nodule is benign or cancerous.
- Serum thyroid levels.
- Serum calcitonin/pentagastrin.
- Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay Imaging studies.
- Neck ultrasonography.
- Thyroid radioiodine imaging.
- Neck computed tomography (CT) scanning or magnetic resonance imaging (avoid iodinated contrast agents).